TraCCC Publications on Environmental Crime
Enviromental Crime Research by TraCCC Staff and Visiting Scholars**All Articles are in Russian**
Student: Ulanova A.A.
Title/Link: Poaching as a form of organized crime (A Case Study of the Republic of Mordovia)
Short Description: This is a sociological-criminological study of poaching. The author describes Mordovia’s natural resources base and analyzes the impact of poaching on the region’s environment. The author presents statistical data on poaching from 2000-2007, as well as results from a survey of 550 people about the causes and consequences of poaching, the potential involvement of organized crime and official corruption in poaching, and the efficacy of existing methods of combating this crime.
Student: Shuklina D.N
Title/Link: A Case Study of Fighting the Illegal Trade in Environmental Resources in the Nizhegorodskiy (Nizhniy Novgorod) Oblast
Short Description: The paper begins with a discussion of biodiversity in the Nizhegorodskaya Oblast, as well as environmental preservation priorities. The author then analyzes Federal and regional environmental protection legislation, law enforcement efforts to investigate environmental crimes and the region’s specific problems with illegal trade in natural resources. The paper includes a survey of law enforcement officers and upperclass students of customs and trade at the Nizhny Novgorod State University.
Student: Koreva N.V.
Title/Link: The Illegal Trade in Natural Resources as a Type of Organized Crime: A Case Study of the Saratov Oblast.
Short Description: The paper’s theoretical section centers on the definition of illegal trade in natural resources as a type of organized criminal activity. The empirical section includes analysis of a survey of experts in the field as well as the citizenry which was conducted to determine the prevalence of this crime as well as the potential efficacy of proposed remedies. The paper includes specific data concerning this crime for the Saratov region, as well as analysis of specific case studies.
Student: Khrenkov O.V.
Title/Link: Organized Crime Involvement in the Trade in Raw Materials and Natural Resources in the Russian Far East
Short Description: This paper relies of careful analysis of information from the Far East Federal District’s State University of the MVD (Ministry of Internal Affairs) concerning the influence of organized crime in the logging and fishing industries. The lack of international cooperation in intercepting crimes in these industries is highlighted, as well as the role of domestic Russian corruption, incomplete legislation and other factors in allowing them to occur. In addition to illegal logging and fish poaching, illegal trade in precious stones and metals is discussed. The sociological section of the research includes results of a survey of 236 officials in the territorial, city and regional procuracies in the Primorsky Krai territory.
Student: Tislenko D.I
Title/Link: Environmental Terrorism: A Contemporary Threat to Humanity
Short Description: The concept of ecological terrorism is discussed using analysis of academic literature and the results of a roundtable discussion. The author conducted a survey of 300 people on the efficacy of particular measures designed to combat the threat of ecological terrorism as well as the level of public awareness of these issues. The author concludes with a set of recommendations for perfecting existing legislation in this sphere.
Faculty/Scholar: A.L Vaisman, S.P. Matveichuk, and S.I. Min’kov Title/Link: “The Меrits and Drawbacks of Legal Regulation and the Fight against the Misuse of the Environment and Poaching of Wild Animals”
Short Description: Aleksei Vaisman, of TRAFFIC–WWF Russia and his colleagues, Sergei Matveichuk and Sergei Min’kov of the Zhitkov Research Institute for Hunting and Animal Husbandry, produced a first rate training manual for use by law enforcement practitioners, scholars and students on the laws that supposedly protect wildlife and the practices used by criminal actors to trap (and often kill) wildlife for nefarious purposes. Russian laws on poaching are scrutinized and suggestions for improvement are made in the first part of the manual. Methods for locating, documenting and investigating poaching crimes are analyzed in the second half.
Faculty/Scholar: Zherebkin, Gennady N.
Title/Link: Responsibility for Illegal Logging in the Russian Far East: Investigative Methods
Short Description: This investigative handbook contains the most in-depth evaluation of the history, socio-economic background and current developments in forest legislation and their impact on the economic and environmental health of the Russian Far East. Diagrams and maps teach the reader to uncover, document, and investigate criminal cases involving the illegal felling of trees. Responsibility for Illegal Logging is designed for law enforcement and customs practitioners as well as environmental inspectors and controllers. The manual is also aimed at students and teachers in judicial and environmental departments in universities and institutes.
Faculty/Scholar: Dolotov R.O
Title/Link: The Role of Corruption in Fomenting Environmental Crime in the Saratov Oblast
Short Description: The theoretical section of this research centers on the concepts of environmental crime and levels of criminal responsibility associated with it. The Criminal Code articles relevant to environmental crimes are analyzed as well as the theoretical aspects of corruption. The paper further examines the state, reasons and conditions under which environmental crime exists in the Saratov Oblast using 2000-2007 data from the research center of the Saratov Oblast regional administration of internal affairs. Media reports of corruption and environmental crimes are discussed, as are interviews conducted by the author with 18 Saratov Oblast government prosecutors in the environmental monitoring administration, 10 officials of the Saratov Oblast Environmental Defense Committee, and 16 representatives regional environmental NGOs.
Faculty/Scholar: Goncharova Y.S.
Title/Link: Preventing and Combating Corruption in Poaching of Water Species and Plants
Short Description: This research is devoted to developing methods to prevent and combat misuse of authority on the part of law enforcement in poaching of water species and plants. The author relies on a survey she conducted among common residents and experts in the city of Astrakhan to identify the most effective ways of eradicating corruption in the commission of these crimes, as well as the efficacy of practices in place at the time of the study. The author proposes a set of socioeconomic, legal, political and administrative measures for combating corruption in this sphere based on her research results.
Faculty/Scholar: Goncharova Y.S.
Title/Link: Types of Corruption in the Poaching of Water Species and Plants
Short Description: The author studies public opinion of corruption in the poaching of water species and plants in the Volga and North Caspian regions. The researcher conducted survey among residents of the city of Astrakhan (200 people, including 100 law enforcement officials) to study public opinion on the scope, underpinnings and level of corruption; the level of punishment for poaching; and forms of corruption in poaching.
Faculty/Scholar: Goncharova Y.C
Title/Link: Poaching as a Type of Organized Crime.
Short Description: The research used sociological research methods (public surveys and expert interviews) to develop an understanding of organized crime involvement in poaching, as well as connections between poaching and other types of crime. The author also presents statistical data on this type of crime.
Faculty/Scholar: Dubovik O.L.
Title/Link: Corruption in Environmental Licensing and Pollution Permits
Short Description: The author examines the essence and legal regulation of environmental licensing, as well as indicators of corruption in the licensing process. Statistical information is used to illustrate crime in this sphere and its dynamics, including a classification of legal violations in environmental licensing. Licensing violations in subsoil management, water management, forestry, wildlife management, and the management of the aquatic continental shelf are discussed in detail, as well as the level of environmental detriment from these crimes and the influence of corruption on their commission.
Faculty/Scholar: Dubovik O.L.
Title/Link: Corruption in Environmental Certification of Products, Production and Services
Short Description: This research represents a thorough legislative, criminological and environmental literature review of the subject. The author reflects on the influence of corruption on environmental crime and its impact on the state of medicine and demography. The state of the natural environment in Russia’s regions is compared with health indicators. Political consequences are also studied, as are external factors influencing the rate of corruption in environmental licensing, the creation of environmental standards, and the state of environmental crimes and infractions. Legal regulation of environmental standards and certification is discussed.
Faculty/Scholar: Dubovik O.L.
Title/Link: Illegal Trade in the Environment: A New Type of Corrupt Crime Article in Russian
Short Description: Corruption’s role in illegal trade in environmental resources is viewed as a stand-alone issue in this early paper, considered a pilot work in the field. The author outlines the paradigms of research and creates a definitional concept of this field, relying on informal interviews and existing empirical and theoretical data. In the analytical portion of the work the author discusses the ability of several types of trade in environmental resources to become corrupted.
Faculty/Scholar: Khrenkov O.V
Title/Link: The Criminal Market of Forestry and Marine Life in the Far East as a Factor which Reduces the Region’s Investment Attractiveness, Vladivostok, 2008
Short Description: The author begins this work by defining the criminal market and its origins, followed by a discussion of the illegal trade in water wildlife and resources in the Russian Far East Federal District, with particular attention to poaching of water species and plants. He also elaborates on the region’s problems with illegal forestry and illegal trade in timber. The illegal transport of environmental resources across customs borders, the types of crimes perpetrated, and international organized crime’s involvement in these crimes is discussed. The author analyzes the capacity of relevant government agencies, as well as the efficacy of the existing legal, regulatory and administrative bases, to address these crimes.
Faculty/Scholar: Lavygina I.V.
Title/Link: Organized Criminal Activity in the Timber Industry of the Irkutsk Oblast and the Republic of Buryatiya
Short Description: This research on environmental crimes in the Irkutsk Oblast and the Republic of Buryatiya begins with analysis of relevant statistical data, including that concerning organized crime. Particular attention is given to the negative effects of illegal logging and the illegal transport of timber products to China and other parts of Asia. The paper includes studies of individuals convicted of perpetrating environmental crimes in the timber industry and their potential ties to organized crime.
Faculty/Scholar: Romanova N.L
Title/Link: Illegal Trade in Timber in the Baikal Region Article in Russian
Short Description: This paper centers on the illegal trade in forestry, including its underpinnings and the conditions which foster the development of organized crime and corruption in this sphere in the Baikal region. The author uses statistical data from the information centers of the administration of internal affairs of the Irkutsk Oblast, the Republic of Buryatiya and the Chita Oblast, as well as data on crimes prosecuted under Article 260 of Russia’s Criminal Code, and data from interviews with officials of environmental crime and monitoring departments within regional law enforcement agencies.
Faculty/Scholar: Romanova N.L.
Title/Link: Organized Crime in the Environmental Sphere
Short Description: This research is based on a sociological survey of law enforcement officials and law professors. The author describes the state of environmental crime, with particular attention to crimes in the timber industry and wildlife management. Crimes such as illegal hunting and the illegal poaching in water species and plants are discussed in the context of existing legislation and law enforcement practice and protocol.