External Resources

Corruption | Money Laundering | Government Efforts | Transnational Organized Crime | Asian Organized Crasianime | Southeastern European Organized Crime | Western European Organized Crime | Eurasian Organized Crime | Organized Crime in the Americas | Other Organized Crime | Human Trafficking Links | TraCCC Products | Terrorism | Cybersecurity | Security Issues | Illicit Trade | Drug Trafficking | Environmental Crime | Academic and Reseach Organizations


  • TraCCC Publications on Corruption
    Access publications and research into corruption conducted by TraCCC scholars and staff.
  • Development Gateway Transparency Page
  • Devoted to all aspects of governance, the page includes news, highlights, discussions, a calendar of events, and other resources.
  • Ethicsworld.org
    A website aimed at professionals in business, government, civil society, and academia as well as students and the media, whose goal is to provide knowledge through news, research, and best practices, and encourage an active exchange of views.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, Fraud Section
    Comprehensive information on the FCPA, legislative history of FCPA, 1998 amendments, opinion procedures, and international agreements.
  • U.S. Department of Commerce
    Office of the Chief Counsel for International Commerce, Information on Legal Aspects of International Trade and Investment, The Anti-Corruption Review, the FCPA, and other anti-corruption materials.
  • Trade Compliance Center
  • Country Commercial reports and guides, trade information and export related information
  • U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs
    Information on the OECD Bribery Convention and First Global Forum on Fighting Corruption Materials – relevant documents related to the OECD Bribery Convention.
  • First Global Forum on Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity, Washington, D.C. (February 1999).
    Link to Second Global Forum, The Hague, The Netherlands (May 2000).
  • U.S. Office of Government Ethics (OGE)
    Information on ethics programs, and informational and educational materials including OECD Public Service Management (PUMA).
  • U.S. Department of Treasury
    Information on money laundering, customs, and international financial institutions.
  • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and further information for accountants and auditors.
  • U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
    Center for Democracy and Governance, USAID’s Efforts on Anticorruption, Handbook on Fighting Corruption
  • Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (USCOC), information on corporate governance and anticorruption.
  • The World Bank Group, Foreign Investment Advisory Service
  • World Bank Anti-Corruption Knowledge Center
  • World Bank Listing of Ineligible Firms found involved with Fraud and Corruption
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), Good Governance Section
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) Legal Transition Reports
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) AntiI-Corruption Unit
  • OECD Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development
  • OECD Public Management Service: Ethics and Corruption
  • OECD Supports Good Governance in Central and Eastern Europe (SIGMA)
  • OECD Fighting Bribery and Corruption
  • World Trade Organization (WTO): Transparency in members’government procurement practices
  • Council of Europe: Group of States against Corruption
  • Transparency International (TI)
  • Colgate University, Corruption in Post-Communist Societies: Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union by Michael Johnston
  • United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Russian version
  • U.S. International Anti-Corruption and Good Governance Act of 2000
  • 2000 United States Federal Financial Management Report (PDF)
  • Organization of American States – Inter-American Convention Aginst Corruption
  • Internet Center for Corruption Research
  • The Fordham Institute for Ethics and Economic Policy – Corruption Information Exchange
  • Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE)–Combating Corruption
  • Independent Commission Against Corruption – New South Wales (Australia)
  • Coalition Anticorruption 2000 (in Bulgarian and English)
  • Center for Public Integrity – International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ)
  • “Corruption in Russia and Transparency International Russian Activities.”(MS Word document) Prepared for presentation at Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) in Washington, DC (June 2002) by Dr. Boris Demidov.
  • Corruption List. Posted once weekly (beginning July 2001). This newsletter contains recent media coverage of acts of corruption in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and Western Europe. The list also contains postings devoted to recent books, journal articles, conferences, and, of course, dialogue from recipients of the list. (G. O’Hayon and T. Roule, University of Pittsburgh, PA). To subscribe, send email to tjrst13@pitt.edu.
  • The Americas’ Accountability/Anti-Corruption Project (AAA), funded by United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
  • World Justice Information Network (WJIN.Net)
  • Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (in English and Turkish)
    The regional public foundation “Computer Science for Democracy” (IDEM Foundation)(Russian, English)
    The goal of the IDEM Foundation is to contribute to the development of democratic institutions in Russia through advancements in political sociology, political science, psychology, information process engineering methodologies, as well as by disseminating information about the operations of these organizations.
  • Anti-Corruption Site specifically for Russians (Russian).
  • The Movement for Quality Government in Israel (in English, Hebrew, Russian, and Arabic) is to promote good government for the people of Israel. The organization is dedicated to the proposition that democracy must be actively nurtured, never more so than in a young country like Israel. Over the years, the MQG has established itself as the nation’s preeminent citizen watchdog organization and peerless advocate for public accountability and the rule of law.
  • Serious Fraud Office England and Wales (SFO); an independent Government department that investigates and prosecutes serious or complex fraud, and corruption.
  • BRIBEline:
    A secure, multi-lingual website through which companies and individuals can anonymously report the bribe demands they receive.
  • Organized crime and Corruption reporting Project
  • U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Center
  • Asian Development Bank Anticorruption and Integrity
  • International Anti-Corruption Conference (IACC) At each IACC participants express their collective commitment to the fight against corruption though a conference declaration.
  • Anti-Corruption Research Network (ACRN)is a podium to present innovative findings and approaches in corruption/ anti-corruption research, a sounding board to bounce off ideas and questions, a marketplace to announce jobs, events, courses and funding.
  • Sahara Reporters is an online community of international reporters and social advocates dedicated to bringing you commentaries, features, news reports from a Nigerian-African perspective
  • University Module Series on Anti-Corruption – United Nations

Money Laundering

  • TraCCC Publications on Money Laundering and Financial Crimes
    Access publications and research into money laundering and financial crimes conducted by TraCCC scholars and staff.
  • Americas’ Accountability / Anti-Corruption Project (English-language site)
    Proyecto ResponDabilidad / Anti-Corrupcion en las Americas (Spanish-language site)
    Initiated in 1989, this is the first and only project of its kind in the Americas. Recognized here is the need of citizens across the Americas to fight corruption and foster transparent, accountable government taking advantage of the opportunities provided by democratic processes.
  • Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) is Australia’s anti-money laundering regulator and specialist unit.
  • Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FAFT) was established by the G-7 Summit in Paris in 1989 to examine measures to combat money laundering.
  • Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN) is located within the U.S. Department of the Treasury. It supports law enforcement investigations and promotes interagency and international cooperation against financial crimes. Its analytic components provide U.S. policy makers with information concerning money laundering developments and trends.
  • United Nation’s Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention has an active program against money laundering known as the Global Programme against Money Laundering (GPML). Through GPML, the United Nations assists member-states on developing legislation against money laundering and to develop and maintain appropriate mechanisms. It promotes anti-money laundering policy development, monitors and analyses the problems and responses, raises public awareness about money laundering, and acts as a coordinator of joint anti-money laundering initiatives by the United Nations with other international organizations.
  • The same UN Office also operates the International Money Laundering Information Network, which has a secure web site devoted to the topic of money laundering.
  • United States Comptroller of the Currency issued Banker’s Guide to Avoiding Problems in connection with money laundering. It outlines relevant legislation, regulations, international cooperative efforts and describes money laundering schemes.
  • United States Department of State publishes a journal called “Economic Perspectives”, theMay 2001 issue of which is devoted to the fight against money laundering. It consists on articles by various authors including a number of senior government officials.
  • U.S. Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics & Law Enforcement Affairs.The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) advises the President, Secretary of State, other bureaus in the Department of State, and other departments and agencies within the U.S. Government on the development of policies and programs to combat international narcotics and crime.
  • Wolfberg Principals: Global Anti-Money Laundering Guidelines for Private Banking (PDF). The Wolfberg Principals are volunteer measures for banks to reduce the likelihood that they will facilitate international money laundering.
  • U.S. Department of Treasury
    Information on money laundering, customs, and international financial institutions.
  • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
    Information about the SEC enforcement actions, Complaint Center, and further information for accountants and auditors.
  • Bank of Credit and Commerce International
    Information about BCCI’s illegal involvement with money laundering globally.
  • www.icc-ccs.org – Piracy, Money Laundering/Fraud/Trade issues (see publications – some of which are published online and you can find the reports there) – includes interactive maps, etc.
  • International Money Laundering: Enforcement Challanges and Opportunities. report by Canadian Management and Policy International
  • Wall Street Journal Blog: Corruption Currents focuses on commentary and news about money laundering, bribery, terrorism finance and sanctions.

The Hawala System and its role in shadow economy money transfers

  • The hawala alternative remittance system and its role in money laundering (Interpol General Secretariat, Lyon, January 2000)
  • The Money Exchange Dealers of Kabul: a Study of the Hawala System in Afghanistan (The World Bank)
  • Measuring the Immeasurable: Hawala International Remittance via Informal Channels (see Session 4: John F. Wilson, International Monetary Fund)
  • The Hawala System (Mohammed El-Qorchi, International Monetary Fund)
  • International Conference on Hawala: 2002 presentations (Central Bank of the UAE)
  • Hawala alternative remittance system and its role in money laundering (PDF)– article discusses the significance and effects of money transferring without money movement throughout the world.

Events / Statements — Financial Crimes

  • Regulatory Impact – Analysis Statement (PDF)
  • Secretary Robert E. Rubin statement at closing press conference of the Buenos
  • DEA – Congressional Testimony, Money Laundering, 2000, 1996
  • Treasury Anti-Money Laundering Regulations
  • OAS/CICAD Anti-Money Laundering Unit
  • Deloitte Financial Crime Speakers Series “International financial crime: Trends, breadth and implications on trade and business” Register by September 28th, 2010.

Government Efforts

  • Moneylaundering.com
  • U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control
  • Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)
  • OECD Financial Action Task Force
  • Asian Development Bank
  • The Caribbean Financial Action Taskforce (CFATF)
  • The World Bank
  • World Bank Institute: Money Laundering Compliance
  • International Monetary Fund
  • International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)
  • Notes on European Money Laundering
  • Global Enforcement Regimes: Transnational Organised Crime, International Terrorism and Money Laundering, by Transnational Institute
  • Role of Accountancy Firms in Money Laundering
  • Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention Money Laundering Links
  • Department of Justice – Antitrust Division
  • Cyberlaundering
  • Computer Crime Research Center
  • Institute for Security Technology Studies
    Institute Studies threats to computer information systems and technologies of Ukraine, and seeks appropriate and effective preparedness, response, and actions against cyber crime – including training and partnership.
  • Australian Institute of Criminology
  • Articles of Interest: End of Ordinary Money by J. Orlin Grabbe , Part I , Part II
  • Federal Law Enforcement Training for Financial Fraud
  • The National White Collar Crime Center (NWCCC) provides support services to state and local law enforcement for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of high-tech and economic crime.

Transnational Organized Crime

  • Computer Crime Problems Research Center, Ukraine
  • RCMP Economic Crime Prevention Branch
  • The International Center for Journalists (ICFJ)
  • Romanian Center for Investigative Journalism (RCIJ)

Asian Organized Crime

  • Asian Organized Crime in Australia
  • Asian Organized Crime
  • Yakuza, Triads, et. Al.
  • Introduction to the Triads
  • Chinese Organized Crime

Southeastern European Organized Crime

  • Task Force on Organized Crime in the Baltic Region
    Such co-operation was at first established at the Baltic Sea Conference on Combating International Crime in 1993. The Task Force includes all the countries around the Baltic, which are represented by personal representatives of the Heads of Government, and the European Commission, EUROPOL, INTERPOL and The World Customs Organisation have been given status as observers

Western European Organized Crime

  • Centro Siciliano di Documentazione “Giuseppe Impastato” (in Italian)
  • The New Mafia Order
  • Europol

Eurasian Organized Crime

  • Fight Against Organized Crime in Russia
  • The Sexy Russian Mafia
  • Criminology Journal of Baikal National University of Economics and Lawis a major research journal publishing the research of major scholars from Siberia as well as other parts of Russia. It provides statistical data on crime from Siberia as well as other regions. It also reports on new publications, dissertations, theses, as well as conferences and workshops devoted to the issues of studying and fighting crime (Published in Russian with synopses in English)

Organized Crime in the Americas

  • National Criminal Justice Reference Service
  • The National Security Agency
  • Godfather IV
  • Rogues, Rascals and Outlaws
  • Defense of Serious Crime
  • Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption, York University, Canada
  • Drug Policy Alliance – formerly The Lindesmith Center, Drug Policy Foundation
  • Organized Crime Impact Study (Canada)
  • Public Safety Canada
  • In Sight: Organized Crime in Americas

Other Organized Crime

  • Bad Guys Blog, by Dave Kaplan
  • The Ridgway Center for International Security Studies, University of Pittsburgh
  • U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL)
    Includes policy and program developments.
  • U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
  • International Enforcement Law Report
  • United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention
  • The Emerging International Mafia — Heritage Commentary
  • The Empire of Crime
  • Hearing on International Crime – 3/12/96
  • U.S. Department of State: Office of International Criminal Justice
  • U.S. Department of Justice Statistics Homepage
  • Organized Crime Prosecutions
  • Mobology Interactive: Investigating Organized Crime
  • TRANSCRIME, European Research Center for the Study of Organized Crime at the University of Trento, Italy
  • Australian Institute of Criminology
  • Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR)
  • Privacy International
  • International Society of Crime Prevention Practitioners, Inc.
  • International Police Force (Interpol)
    The world’s pre-eminent organization in support of all organizations, authorities and services whose mission is preventing or detecting international crime.
  • Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime and Corruption (Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto)
  • National Institute of Justice International Center
  • Countering Transnational Organized Crime (Africa Center for Strategic Studies)
    Webinar: Professional Development for Countering Transnational Organized Crime
    Webinar: Enhancing Security-Justice Coordination to Counter Transnational Organized Crime
    Webinar: Countering Transnational Organized Crime
  • Transnational Threats Initiative – Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS)
  • Organized Crime Registry
  • Industry Canada – Security and Cryptography
  • Standing Group Organized Crime Blog
  • United Nations on Drugs and Crime: The Globalization of Crime (PDF)
  • Flare Network: whose OLE – Otranto Legality Experience organizes the international forum on illegal economy, organised crime and globalisation.

Human Trafficking Links

  • Trucking and Human Trafficking
  • Dr. Louise Shelley speaks about human trafficking: Materials from C-SPAN’s video archives
  • Anti-Slavery: International Trafficking
  • Anti-Trafficking Review (Journal promoting a rights-based approach to trafficking)
  • Arnold, Julianna and Cornelia Doni. USAID/Moldova Antitrafficking Assessment? Critical Gaps in and Recommendations for Antitrafficking Activities.
  • The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW)
  • Human Rights Watch. Hopes Betrayed: Trafficking of Women and Girls to Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina for Forced Prostitution (PDF)
  • Human Trafficking and Modern Day Slavery
  • Human Trafficking Search: An online resource which includes news articles, blog posts and searchable links to other sources on human trafficking, including child labor, forced labor and sex trafficking
  • Limanowska, Barbara. Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe: Current Situation and Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova and Romania. UNICEF, 2005 (PDF)
  • The International Organization for Migration
    An intergovernmental migration organization that has identified combating trafficking in women as one of its priority action areas. Its efforts are aimed at countering all human trafficking, and the site includes documented reports and other relevant publications. This organization’s primary commitment is to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migration and society.
  • International Organization for Migration: research and policy section
  • Made in a Free World (Network of individuals and organizations fighting trafficking)
  • National Domestic Workers Alliance
    Beyond Survival (Collaborative Anti-Trafficking Project)
  • Polaris Project: 2013 Ratings of State Anti-Trafficking Laws
  • Protection Project (human rights institute at Johns Hopkins University)
  • Shared Hope:
    Protected Innocence Challenge 2013 (Full Report)
    Protected Innocence Challenge (Project Overview)
    2013 State Report Cards (Assessing State Laws on Human Trafficking)
    Demanding Justice Project Benchmark Assessment 2013
  • Stop Modern Slavery (DC-based NGO which promotes anti-slavery activism)
  • TRAC Report on Prosecutions of Child Sex Trafficking Crimes (2008-2013)
  • UNESCO. The Trafficking Statistics Project
  • Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report. US Department of State, 2005
  • Social Politcs Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 2005. Articles in the issue:
    –Laura Agustín, ‘Migrants in the Mistress’s House: Other Voices in the “Trafficking” Debate‘
    –Gail Kligman and Stephanie Limoncelli, ‘Trafficking Women after Socialism: To, Through, and From Eastern Europe‘
    –Joyce Outshoorn, ‘The Political Debates on Prostitution and Trafficking of Women’
  • U.S. Department of State: Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
    A gateway to international information on programs against trafficking in persons conducted and funded by the U.S. government and its separate agencies. Site includes a link to related U.S. initiatives, documents and reports conducted by U.S. government and non-governmental agencies. The U.S. Department of State document on “Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response” gives an overview of the problem and discusses the definition of trafficking in persons, the scope of the problem worldwide, the causes for the rise in trafficking, the characteristics of traffickers and how they acquire their victims, regional trends, and the state of trafficking in the United States.
  • U.S. Department of States: 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report on 177 nations, the most comprehensive worldwide report on the efforts of governments to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons.
  • Amy O’Neill Richard’s Report on the International Trafficking of Women and Organized Crime, dated November 1999 (PDF).
    An intelligence monograph written for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). This work thoroughly describes forms of trafficking of women to the U.S. in unprecedented detail and from a broad range of viewpoints. The research strongly supports the claim that trafficking has “increasing profit potential with low risk of penalties.” Furthermore, the report highlights the complexity of individual trafficking cases and the multiple offences involved.
  • United Kingdom Home Office, Stopping Traffic: Exploring the extent of, and responses to, trafficking in women for sexual exploitation in the U.K (PDF).
    This document presents the findings of research that explored the nature and extent of trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the U.K. The document also examines the U.K.’s response to this problem. It provides a definition of trafficking in women and suggests frameworks for understanding the nature and extent of trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This report outlines the legal and policy framework in which trafficking is currently addressed in the U.K, provides information on the scale of the trafficking problem in the U.K., examines law enforcement responses to trafficking, and discusses changes that need to take place in order to place trafficking at the forefront of policing and public policy.
  • United Nation’s Development Fund for Women
    The UNDP focuses on gender equality policy, dialogue and practice, and promotes the empowerment of women. The site has a library of resource to other related UN sites, including the UNDP’s site for the 5-year review of the Beijing Platform for Action. Entitled “Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-First Century”, the “Beijing Plus 5 Review.
  • Verite (an NGO that helps businesses to fight forced labor in their supply chains)
  • Center for International Crime Prevention (CICP)
    The Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) is the United Nations office responsible for crime prevention, criminal justice and criminal law reform. It also conducts a global program against trafficking in human beings. Documents on this site include the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, which supplements the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (2000).
  • TRANSCRIME, University of Trento, Italy
    A European Research Institute for the study of transnational organized crime. Transcrime conducts research and engages in projects studying the trafficking of human beings. The site posts the Institute’s working papers and lists current research activities of its associates and students.
  • Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST)
    CAST is an alliance of nonprofit service providers, grassroots advocacy groups and activists dedicated to providing human services and human rights advocacy to victims of modern-day slavery. CAST was founded in 1998 in the aftermath of the El Monte sweatshop case. CAST’s mission is to assist persons trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and slavery-like practices and to work toward ending all instances of such human rights violations. CAST is the only organization of its kind in the United States operating to comprehensively address all aspects of the trafficking of persons.
  • The Protection Project
    A research project to gather and disseminate information regarding the national and international legislation protecting women and children from commercial sexual exploitation. Contains a collection of data from governments, intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), housing the following databases: Human Rights Reports, Laws, Survivor Stories, Comparative Legal Charts, and Maps.
  • Amnesty International Women’s Human Rights
    Amnesty International is a worldwide campaigning movement that works to promote all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. In particular, Amnesty International campaigns for particular international issues including protection and promotion of human rights, including human rights abuses of trafficked women. Activities include public demonstrations, letter writing, human rights education, fundraising concerts, individual appeals on a particular case, and global campaigns on specific issues. This site offers country-specific reports, issue reports and position papers as well as news services on related international women’s issues.
  • Donna M. Hughes, University of Rhode Island; Russian version
    Donna M. Hughes does research and writing on violence against women, global sexual exploitation, and women’s organized resistance to violence. She also works on issues related to women, science and technology. Some of her publications are posted on this website, along with links to other governmental and non-governmental Internet resources, and a connecting site dedicated to documenting the developments of the Trafficking in Women from Ukraine Research Project: U.S.-Ukraine Research Partnership.
  • Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States International and Domestic Trends (PDF)
    by Janice G. Raymond and Donna M. Hughes (March 2001).
  • National Crime and Justice Reference ServiceNCJRS is a federally sponsored information clearinghouse for people around the country and the world involved with research, policy, and practice related to criminal and juvenile justice and drug control. This site offers a range of services and resources, balancing the information needs of the field with the technological means to receive and access support. It also includes information on grant funding opportunities.
  • Captive Daughters
    A non-profit organization dedicated to ending the sex trafficking of children, with special emphasis on girls.
  • The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) is a non-governmental organization that promotes women’s human rights. It works internationally to combat sexual exploitation in all its forms.
  • UNODC Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Tools and Publications Includes reports, training materials and tools regarding human trafficking
  • Combating Trafficking in South-East Asia: A Review of Policy and Programme Responses(PDF)
    Prepared by Annuska Derks for the International Organization for Migration. 2/2000.
  • Crossing Borders Against Trafficking in Women and Girls (.pdf)
    Trafficking in women and girls for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the form of prostitution, pornography, escorts, and such is a growing phenomenon in Europe and throughout the world. As a result of poverty and limited work opportunities, young women from the Third World, and increasingly, from Eastern Europe, leave their countries in search of work. These women become prey to traffickers who promise such work as dancing or hostessing. Instead, these women end up living in slave-like conditions, under the full control of the profiteer/pimp.
  • Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation
    The Factbook on Global Sexual Exploitation was compiled by Donna M. Hughes, Laura Joy Sporcic, Nadine Z. Mendelsohn, Vanessa Chirgwin, of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women from media, non-governmental organization and government reports in 1999. It is an initial effort to collect facts, statistics and known cases on global sexual exploitation. Information is organized into four categories: Trafficking, Prostitution, Pornography, and Organized and Institutionalized Sexual Exploitation and Violence. Sources were not contacted to verify information. This project was made possible with the support of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Rhode Island and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), Norway.
  • World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
  • Guide to the New UN Protocol (PDF)
    Protocol to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. Janice G. Raymond, Coalition Against Trafficking in Women.
  • Child Trafficking Library: searchable database for dicuments and videos on human and child trafficking.
  • Illegal Immigration and Commercial Sex: the New Slave Trade
    Book edited by Phil Williams. Contents: Human commodity trafficking; illegal migration: personal tragedies, social problems, or national security threats; Capitalizing on transition economies: the role of the Russian mafiya in trafficking women for forced prostitution; Trafficking in people in Thailand; Organized crime and trafficking in women from Eastern Europe in the Netherlands; and Prostitution and the mafia: the involvement of organized crime in the global sex trade among other related articles.
  • Information Campaign Against Trafficking in Women from Ukraine (PDF)
    Research report by the International Organization for Migration, July 1998.
  • International Trafficking of Women and Children: Background Briefing
    Testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, February 22, 2000.
  • Organized Crime and the Business of Migrant Trafficking: An Economic Analysis
    Andreas Schloenhardt, Australian Institute of Criminology, November 10, 1999.
  • Involvement of Organized Crime in Trafficking in Migrants–Hanni Heikkinen and Reinhard Lohrmann, International Organisation for Migration, October 1998
  • Stopping Traffic: Exploring the Extent of, and Responses to, Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the UK (PDF) Prepared by Liz Kelly and Linda Regan for the Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, 2000. Police research series paper no. 125.
  • Trafficking in Women from the Dominican Republic for Sexual Exploitation, June 1996, International Organization for Migration
  • Trafficking in Women to Austria for Sexual Exploitation
    This study describes how women are trafficked to Austria from Central and Eastern European Countries. It also examines legal issues related to both prostitution and trafficking in Austria, and highlights the need for a coordinated strategy to combat illegal trade of women in a country where prostitution is a legal and taxable source of income.
  • Trafficking in Women to Italy for Sexual Exploitation
    This study examines the growing problem of trafficking in women to Italy. Based on interviews with victims of trafficking and with experts and social workers, the study describes the ways in which these women are recruited and transported to Italy, and the methods which are used to control and exploit them, as well as the role played by traffickers. Prepared by the International Organization for Migration. June 1996.
  • Trafficking of NIS Women Abroad
    An International Conference in Moscow 3-5 November 1997 Conference Report prepared by the Global Survival Network in collaboration with The International League for Human Rights.
  • UNDOC on human trafficking and migrant smuggling
    Vital Voices is a global partnership that supports women’s progress in building democracies, strong economies and peace. The NGO is very active in connecting women fighting trafficking worldwide
  • Women’s Human Rights Resources: Slavery and Trafficking
    While the sexual exploitation of women and girls is certainly not a new phenomenon, the world is witnessing a rise in the slavery and trafficking of women and girls. This increasing commodification ofwomen and young girls is the result of their deepening poverty and deprivation. This section of the site contains materials that define the problem as well as those that identify the relevant international prohibitions against slavery and trafficking. A compilation by the University of Toronto, Bora Laskin Law Library.
  • Kyrgyz Sex Trade Flourishes
    Report from the Institute for War & Peace Reporting, June 1, 2001, regarding the trafficking of women and children from Kyrgyzstan.
  • East: Trafficking Of Women On Rise In Eastern Europe (Part 1)
  • Russia: With No Jobs At Home, Women Fall Victim To Trafficking (Part 2)
    Two-part report from Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 23, 2001, regarding the trafficking of women from Eastern Europe.
  • “Human Trafficking in Ukraine and Perspective of it’s Prevention” (MS Word), (2002), paper by Dr. Olga Pischulina, Associate Professor in School of Sociology of Kharkiv National University, Ukraine.
  • BBC News Doc Archive: Assignment-Children For Sale
  • http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900LargeMaps/SKAR-64GBKF?OpenDocument – trafficking routes of women and children from and through Africa.
  • The Protection Project, located at John Hopkins University’s SAIS program, publishes major reports on national and regional patterns of human trafficking as well as legal responses to the problem. It also analyses sex tourism in different regions, and provides legal responses.
  • COATNET– Christian NGO that works in the following areas: Assistance to Trafficked Persons, Prevention and Awareness Raising, Advocacy, and Networking and Cooperation
  • AFESIP-Cambodian Prize winning NGO, seeks to combat the causes and effects of trafficking and sex slavery in women through: psychological counseling and social work services, its health clinic, legal investigations and assistance in prosecutions, vocational skills training, repatriation and reintegration programs.
  • Guide to Identification of Possible Victims of Trafficking-Norwegian’s Government Action Plan Against Human Trafficking has developed this guide to inform a targetted group that may come into contact with persons whom they fear may be in a situation of exploitation.
  • National Coordinating Unit for Victims of Trafficking-Norway – powerpoint presentation decribing the background of this specific Police Unit and process for finding victims of trafficking
  • The Norwegian Government’s Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking(2006-2009)-booklet describes what human trafficking is, the main goals for the plan of action, and the assistance and processes that the government will ensure to protect and help victims of human trafficking
  • The Congressional Research Service issued TIP Report entitled “Trafficking in Persons in Latin America and the Caribbean” which discusses background factors in Latin America, US Policies and Regional and Country Anti-Trafficking Efforts along with policy suggestions.
  • The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) has recently published a book entitled, “Strategies Against Human Trafficking: The Role of the Security Sector,” that examines strategies against human trafficking.
  • Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Baltic States: Social and Legal Aspects, rerport by IOM, 2001
  • International Center for Journalists: a non-profit, professional organization, promotes quality journalism worldwide in the belief that independent, vigorous media are crucial in improving the human condition.
  • HumanTrafficking.org: A web resource for for combating human trafficking
  • OSCE/UNODC Expert Seminar on Leveraging Anti-Money Laundering Regimes to Combat Human Trafficking Presentations(October 2011); Louise Shelley’s Presentation
  • Human Trafficking Online: A Project of the University of Southern California’s  Annenberg Center on Communication Leadership & Policy
  • University of Nebraska Human Trafficking Conference Oct 11-13, 2012

TraCCC Products

  • Patricia Bibes – Status of Human Trafficking in Latin America (MS Word)
  • Arzu Kilercioglu – OSCE Responses to Human Trafficking (MS Word)
  • Dr. Sally Stoecker – The Rise in Human Trafficking and Role of Organized Crime (PDF)


  • The Terrorism Research Center
    Founded in 1996, the Terrorism Research Center, Inc. (TRC) is an independent institute dedicated to the research of terrorism, information warfare, critical infrastructure protection and other issues of low-intensity political violence and gray-area phenomena. TRC maintains a network of terrorism and information warfare specialists drawn from industry, government, and academia in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Argentina, France, and Australia.
  • InfoGuide – government documents and resource searches for government documents – specifically GAO reports for anyone working with Iraq or Afghanistan – excellent resource material in those reports on the major players in illicit crime and terrorism, etc.


Security Issues

  • https://www.tradecompliance.io/
  • Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
  • The Human Security Center of the University of British Columbia maintains a searchable news database on relevant issues in many regions, including the former Soviet States.
  • Global Security Blog written by a professor at the University of South Florida focused on applying social and behavioral science – especially criminology – research to preserve global security and to understand, prevent, and mitigate armed conflict and violent extremism
  • The Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on the Conflict In Georgia was to investigate the origins and the course of the conflict in Georgia, including with regard to international law (including the Helsinki Final Act), humanitarian law and human rights, and the accusations made in that context (including allegations of war crimes).
  • Austrailian Parliment’s House of Representatives Report: Hackers, Frauders, and Botnets: Tackling the Problem of Cyber Crime
  • Global Consortium on Security Transformation (GCST)
    GCST provides fora for cross-regional dialogues to foster new thinking and policy solutions to contentious security challenges. It also offers fellowships and small grants.
  • Institute for Human Security (Fletcher School)
    The Institute for Human Security was created in 2000. It promotes cutting-edge research and education at the intersection between humanitarianism, development, human rights, and conflict resolution.
  • Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS) is a non-party, non-profit organization and independent think tank devoted to studying peace and security issues related South and Southeast Asia.
  • National Security and Climate Change Video via LinkTv.
  • Verdadabierta studies conflict in Colombia

Illicit Trade

  • BBC News DocArchive: The Wildlife Smugglers
  • Honey Laundering
  • InfoGuide – government documents and resource searches for government documents – specifically GAO reports for anyone working with Iraq or Afghanistan – excellent resource material in those reports on the major players in illicit crime and terrorism, etc.
  • www.icc-ccs.org – Piracy, Money Laundering/Fraud/Trade issues (see publications – some of which are published online and you can find the reports there) – includes interactive maps, etc.
  • Tobacco Underground– Public Integrity Article on the Booming Global Trade in Smuggled Cigarettes
  • The Economics of Illegal Logging and Associated Trade

Drug Trafficking

  • CIA:Heroin Movement Worldwide – publication including maps of heroin flows – that you can copy/paste
  • The Congressional Research Service issued a Report entitled “Merida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues” which discusses the funding and status of implementation for the Merida Initiative as well as US, Mexico and Caribbean policy issues.
  • UNODC report: The Globalization of Crime: The Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment
  • UNDOC report: World Drug Report 2010

Environmental Crime

  • TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network, works to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
  • Wildlife trade in the Russian Far East: an overview (PDF, 2.4 MB) by Sergey N Lyapustin, Alexey L Vaisman and Pavel V Fomenko (2007). 107 pp. (Russian with English summary). Published by TRAFFIC Europe. An examination of the reasons for illicit trade in wild plants and animals in the Far East of Russia, analysing the activities of law enforcement and environmental authorities relating to identification and prevention of this trade, and evaluating the efficacy of measures taken between 1999 and 2006. Article is in Russian.
  • TraCCC Graduate Student, Rebecca Smokowicz, Powerpoint Presentation: The Mafia and Wind Energy Presentation

Academic and Reseach Organizations

  • Council on Foreign Relations Global Governance Monitor
  • International Association for the Study of Organized Crime
  • Australian Institute of Criminology
  • The European Institute for Crime Prevetion and Control
  • Institute for Security Studies
  • International Centre For Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy
  • Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law
  • The Center for Public Integrity
  • Central Asia-Caucasus Institute-Silk Roads Studies
  • Pakistan Society of Criminology
  • Basel Institute for Governance
  • The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and the Silk Road Studies Program
  • Cambridge International Symposium on Economic Crime
  • Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS)
  • Sahara Reporters
  • University of Nebraska Human Trafficking Conference Oct 11-13, 2012